The basic definition of a stepper motor is an electromechanical device that converts electrical energy into mechanical energy. This is a brushless motor that can divide the entire rotation into equal steps, and when the motor speed is adjusted according to the requirements of the application, the stepping motor can be accurately controlled without feedback.
In order to reach the maximum torque, the coil in the stepper motor must reach its maximum rated current. The winding inductance and back electromotive force generated by the moving rotor will prevent the drive current from changing. Therefore, as the motor accelerates, the current flowing through the motor windings becomes smaller and smaller, and the back electromotive force increases, thereby reducing the output torque of the stepping motor. As the speed increases further, the current will not reach the rated value, and eventually the stepper motor will stop rotating.
How does a stepper motor rotate every step at a fixed angle? The answer lies in using the control pulse signal of the stepper motor. The pulse signal controls the excitation current of the winding coil of the stepping motor. The stepper motor precisely controls the rotation angle and rotation speed through pulses. According to the pulse control sent to the stator winding, the motor does not actually rotate continuously.
Stepping motors have the advantages of low cost (because they have fewer mechanical parts), simple drive, high precision and large holding torque. The low-speed torque of a stepping motor changes with current. The rate of change of torque depends on the winding inductance and the drive circuit. Stepper motors are used for applications with precise positioning or high torque requirements.
The applications of stepper motor used for:
Application of stepper motor
Ticket vending machine
Air conditioning blinds
The size of the stepping motor should be determined according to the torque curve specified by the manufacturer under a specific drive voltage or using its own drive circuit.
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1. Wikipedia: Stepper motor